The Reason for 24 Patterns

The life of a human being, perhaps 100 years, can be considered as a day when compared with eternity. Therefore, we mortals are no more than simple travellers who pass by the eternal years of an eon in a day. It is evident that no one can live more than a limited amount of time. Nevertheless, most people foolishly enslave themselves to materialism as if they could live for thousands of years. And some people strive to bequeath a good spiritual legacy for coming generations, in this way, gaining immortality.

Obviously, the spirit is perpetual while material is not; therefore, what we can do to leave behind something for the welfare of mankind is, perhaps, the most important thing in our lives. Here I leave Taekwon-Do for mankind as a trace of man of the late 20th century. The 24 patterns represent 24 hours, one day, or all my life. The name of the pattern, the number of movements, and the diagrammatic symbol of each pattern symbolize either heroic figures in Korean history or instances relating to historical events. General Choi, Hong Hi.

Essential Information about Patterns

The following points should be considered while performing patterns:
1. Pattern should begin and end at exactly the same spot. This will indicate the performer’s accuracy.
2. Correct posture and facing must be maintained at all times.
3. Muscles of the body should be either tensed or relaxed at the proper critical moments in the exercise.
4. The exercise should be performed in a rhythmic movement with an absence of stiffness.
5. Movement should be accelerated or decelerated according to the instructions in this book.
6. Each pattern should be perfected before moving to the next .
7. Students should know the purpose of each movement.
8. Students should perform each movement with realism.
9. Attack and defence techniques should be equally distributed among right and left hands and feet.

All patterns listed are performed under the assumption the student is facing “D” (see pattern diagrams). There are a total of twenty-four patterns in Taekwon-Do.
The name of the pattern, the number of movements, and the diagrammatic symbol of each pattern symbolize either heroic figures in Korean history or instances relating to historical events.
The interpretation of each pattern will be found on its specific page.

Mr. Simon Cox of Vision Taekwon-Do England has done excellent research on the Black belt pattern histories. Since each Pattern has a close relationship with the fundamental exercise, students should practice the patterns according to the following graduation to attain the maximum results with the least effort.

CHON-JI 9th gup white/yellow stripe CHOONG-JANG 2nd degree black
DAN-GUN 8th gup yellow JUCHE 2nd degree black
DO-SAN 7th gup yellow/green stripe SAM-IL 3rd degree black
WON-HYO 6th gup green YOO-SIN 3rd degree black
YUL-GOK 5th gup green/blue stripe CHOI-YONG 3rd degree black
JOONG-GUN 4th gup blue YONG-GAE 4th degree black
TOI-GYE 3rd gup blue/red stripe UL-JI 4th degree black
HWA-RANG 2nd gup red MOON-MOO 4th degree black
CHOONG-MOO 1st gup red/black stripe SO-SAN 5th degree black
KWANG-GAE 1st degree black SE-JONG 5th degree black
PO-EUN 1st degree black TONG-IL 6th degree black
GE-BAEK 1st degree black SAJU JIRUGI four direction punch
EUI-AM 2nd degree black SAJU MAKGI four direction block

CHON- JI means literally ” the Heaven the Earth”. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.

CHON-JI
Movements – 19
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

DAN-GUN is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year of 2,333 B.C.

DAN-GUN
Movements – 21
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

DO-SAN is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938) The 24 movements represent his entire life, which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.

DO-SAN
Movements – 24
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

WON-HYO was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686 A.D.

WON-HYO
Movements – 28
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE A

YUL-GOK is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi l (1536-1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea” The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38 latitude and the diagram represents “scholar”.

YUL-GOK
Movements – 38
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

JOONG-GUN is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahn’sage when he was executed in a Lui-Shung prison (1910).

JOONG-GUN
Movements – 32
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE B

TOI-GYE is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority on neo Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37 latitude, the diagram represents ” scholar“.

TOI-GYE
Movements – 37
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE B

HWA-RANG is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group, which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity.

HWA-RANG
Movements – 29
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE

CHOONG-MOO was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Lee Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.

CHOONG-MOO
Movements – 30
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE C

KWANG-GAE is named after the famous KwangGaeToh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A. D., the year he came to the throne.

KWANG-GAE
Movements – 39
Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH A HEAVEN HAND

PO-EUN is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.

PO-EUN
Movements – 36
Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH A HEAVEN HAND

GE-BAEK is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660 AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.

GAE-BAEK
Movements – 44
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

EUI-AM is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly way religion) in 1905.
The diagram represents his Indomitable Spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.

EUI-AM
Movements – 45
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE D

CHOONG-JANG is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Lee Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left-hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.

CHOONG-JANG
Movements – 52
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE A

JUCHE is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In other words, the idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain, which symbolizes the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu mountain.

JUCHE
Movements – 45
Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH A TWIN SIDE ELBOW

KO-DANG pseudonyn of the patriot Cho Man Shik, who dedicated his life to the Korean Independence Movement and to the education of his people.

KO-DANG 39 moves
Closed Ready Stance C (Moa chunbi sogi “C”)

YOO-SIN is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side, symbolizing.Yoo Sin’s mistake of following his Kings’ orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation.

YOO-SIN
Movements – 68
Ready Posture – WARRIOR READY STANCE B

SAM-IL denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.

SAM-IL
Movements – 33
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE C

CHOI-YONG is named after General Choi Yong, premier and commander in chief of the armed forces during the 14th century KoryoDynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. His subordinate commanders headed by general Yi SungGae, who later became the first King of the Lee Dynasty, executed him.

CHOI-YONG
Movements – 46
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE C

YONG-GAE is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae Somoon. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 A.D., the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.

YONG-GAE
Movements – 49
Ready Posture – WARRIOR READY STANCE A

UL– JI is named after general Ul-Ji Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang’s invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 A.D., Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerilla tactics, was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author’s age when he designed the pattern.

UL-JI
Movements – 42
Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH AN X-BACK HAND

Moon-Moo honours the 30th King of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King’s Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea “where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese.” It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 A.D. when Moon Moo came to the throne.

MOON-MOO
Movements – 61
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

SO-SAN is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520-1604) during the Lee Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myunh Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592.

SO-SAN
Movements – 72
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE A

SE-JONG is named after the greatest Korean King, Se-Jong, who invented the Korean alphabet in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The digram represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.

SE-JONG
Movements – 24
Ready Posture – CLOSED READY STANCE B

TONG-IL denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided since 1945. The diagram symbolizes the homogeneous race.

TONG-IL
Movements – 56
Ready Posture – PARALLEL STANCE WITH AN OVERLAPPED BACK HAND

FOUR DIRECTION PUNCH
SAJU JIRUGI
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE

FOUR DIRECTION BLOCK
SAJU MAKGI
Ready Posture – PARALLEL READY STANCE